Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus Reuteri are both beneficial probiotic bacteria commonly used in probiotic supplements and fermented dairy products.
Definition of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus
Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a Gram-positive nonspore forming bacteria from the Lactobacillus family that belongs to its own subgenus Lactobacillus and commonly found in both digestive systems as well as female reproductive tracts and other parts of the body. L. rhamnosus has many health-giving potential benefits and therefore constitutes one form of probiotic bacteria strains.
L. rhamnosus bacteria is rod-shaped and range from 0.5 to 0.9 micrometers wide by 1 to 3 micrometers long; their width measures up to 1 micrometer in width while length can span anywhere between one and three micrometers. They often form chains or pairs of cells. L. rhamnosus exhibits facultative anaerobic metabolism allowing it to thrive both with and without oxygen present, fermenting sugars into lactic acid production for its acidifying qualities.
L. rhamnosus is well known for its resilience in surviving harsh acidic environments of the stomach and intestinal lining, adhering to these surfaces as it does so. Studies on L. rhamnosus have focused on its potential therapeutic properties – including improving gut health, modulating immunity systems and lactose digestion while helping prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea as well as inhibiting pathogen growth.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus can be divided into various strains or subspecies that vary in terms of genomic and functional traits, offering unique health benefits in various degrees. Therefore, when studying its effects and applications it’s vitally important that specific strains of L. rhamnosus be taken into consideration.
Definition of Lactobacillus Reuteri
Lactobacillus reuteri is a Gram-positive nonspore forming bacteria belonging to the Lactobacillus genus that typically resides within human and animal digestive systems as well as various habitats like oral cavities, breast milk production or even intimal tract.
L. reuteri is a rod-shaped bacteria measuring between 0.5 to 0.8 micrometers wide and 1.5 to 4.0 micrometers in length, often found forming chains or pairs of cells in chains or pairs. Like its fellow lactic acid bacteria (LAB), L. reuteri can ferment sugars into lactic acid to further contribute its acidifying abilities.
L. reuteri bacteria have earned immense praise as probiotic strains due to the potential health advantages they possess. L. reuteri strains have demonstrated antimicrobial activity against pathogens like harmful bacteria and fungi; furthermore they’ve also been demonstrated to modulate immune systems, strengthen intestinal barriers, modulate immunity levels, produce beneficial proteins that support immunity as well as participating in producing antimicrobial substances and beneficial molecules synthesis processes.
L. reuteri strains vary significantly in terms of genomic and functional features, which in turn determine their probiotic properties. Subspecies and strain-specific differences have also been documented within this strain, making it essential to take specific strains into consideration when studying its effects and applications.
Research on L. reuteri suggests potential health benefits in areas including gut, oral and immune modulation – even mental wellbeing! More study needs to be completed on L. reuteri strains that might promote human wellbeing.
Importance of probiotics in gut health
Probiotics play an essential part in supporting and improving gut health. Our human digestive tract hosts an immense and varied community of microorganisms collectively known as gut microbiota, the balance and diversity of which are necessary for optimal digestive function, immune response, and well-being. Consuming probiotics (live microorganisms that confer health benefits when taken in sufficient amounts) has proven its ability to positively impact this ecosystem and contribute towards enhanced gut wellness.
Here are several key reasons probiotics are important:
- Restoring and maintaining microbial balance: Poor diet, stress levels, antibiotic use and infections can alter the balance between beneficial and potentially harmful bacteria in our gut. Probiotics help restore and maintain an ideal microbial ecosystem by increasing Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species as well as inhibiting potentially dangerous ones such as E coli.
- Enhancing digestion and nutrient absorption: Probiotics have the power to greatly enhance digestion and nutrient absorption by aiding in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates, proteins and fats into their component parts, creating enzymes which break them down more readily for body access. Furthermore, probiotics may enhance absorption of certain minerals like calcium, iron and magnesium into our systems.
- Strengthening the gut barrier: Probiotics help strengthen this important gut barrier by encouraging mucin production; protecting intestinal walls against potential invaders like pathogens; and strengthening tight junctions among intestinal cells for tighter closing mechanisms that decrease “leakage.”
- Modulating immune function: Gut health plays a pivotal role in immune system functioning and probiotics can exert influence over responses in the gut. They can stimulate production of immune-modulating substances (cytokines) which serve to balance activity levels on an immune level while increasing production of antibodies that support balanced immunity response systems.
- Supporting bowel regularity: Probiotics have been demonstrated to effectively soothe symptoms associated with digestive conditions like IBS and constipation, including regulation of bowel movements, decreased gas, bloating reduction and improved overall gut motility.
- Managing antibiotic-associated disturbances: Antibiotics may be necessary in treating bacterial infections, but their side effects include disruptions of gut microbiota that lead to diarrhea. Probiotics taken alongside antibiotics may help manage this side effect by replenishing beneficial bacteria that were lost while taking an antibiotic and decreasing antibiotic-associated diarrhea risks.Note that probiotic effects and benefits will differ based on which strains and dosages you select for use, so consulting healthcare providers for personalized advice about using probiotics. They are available as resources that may address specific health concerns that you might be facing.
Difference Between Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus Reuteri
Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus Reuteri belong to the Lactobacillus genus of bacteria. Both species fall under its classification: Firmicutes/Bacilli.
Here’s an overview of their taxonomy and classification:
- Kingdom: Bacteria
- Phylum: Firmicutes
- Class: Bacilli
- Order: Lactobacillales
- Family: Lactobacillaceae
- Genus: Lactobacillus
- Species: Lactobacillus rhamnosus
- Kingdom: Bacteria
- Phylum: Firmicutes
- Class: Bacilli
- Order: Lactobacillales
- Family: Lactobacillaceae
- Genus: Lactobacillus
- Species: Lactobacillus reuteri
Both species share the same phylum, class, order, family, and genus, indicating their close relationship. However, they are distinct species with different names and characteristics.
Consideration must also be given to subspecies and strain variations within each species when studying Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri; each can have unique genetic makeups, metabolic capabilities and health benefits which must be carefully taken into account during research and studies. Hence it’s key that any research addressing either species takes account of all subspecies/ strain variations being studied simultaneously.
Morphology and Characteristics of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus Reuteri
Morphology and characteristics of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri are as follows:
- Morphology: L. rhamnosus appears as rod-shaped cells ranging in width between 0.5 micrometers and 0.9 micrometers and length from one to three micrometers, typically found grouped or pairwise along chains or pairs of cells.
- Gram Stain: L. rhamnosus is Gram-positive, which means it retains the crystal violet stain during the Gram staining procedure.
- Motility: L. rhamnosus is non-motile, meaning it does not possess flagella or other structures for active movement.
- Oxygen Requirement: L. rhamnosus is considered a facultative anaerobe, capable of growing in both the presence and absence of oxygen.
- Metabolic Capabilities: L. rhamnosus is a strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This species can convert various sugars to lactic acid for fermentation and metabolic processing of lactose as well as produce enzymes, such as beta-galactosidase.
- Acid Tolerance: L. rhamnosus exhibits good acid tolerance, enabling it to survive and thrive in the acidic environment of the stomach.
- Morphology: L. reuteri is another rod-shaped bacteria similar to L. rhamnosus; its cells typically range in width between 0.5 micrometers and 0.8 micrometers and length from 1.5 to 4.0 micrometers, often forming chains or pairs of cells in chains or pairs.
- Gram Stain: L. reuteri is Gram-positive, retaining the crystal violet stain during Gram staining.
- Motility: L. reuteri is generally non-motile.
- Oxygen Requirement: L. reuteri is a facultative anaerobe, capable of growing in the presence or absence of oxygen.
- Metabolic Capabilities: L. reuteri, being an LAB, possesses the ability to ferment sugars, producing lactic acid. It can metabolize a wide range of carbohydrates.
- Acid Tolerance: L. reuteri demonstrates acid tolerance, allowing it to survive and function in the acidic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.
It’s important to note that while the morphology and general characteristics of L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri are described here, specific strains or subspecies within these species might exhibit slight variations in their characteristics.
Metabolic Capabilities of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus Reuteri
Metabolic capabilities of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri are as follows:
- Fermentation: L. rhamnosus is an outstanding strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), well-known for its ability to ferment various sugars through glycolysis – this metabolic pathway leads directly to production of lactic acid as its end product.
- Lactose Metabolism: L. rhamnosus contains beta-galactosidase enzyme, which allows it to efficiently break down lactose into glucose and galactose for easier metabolism by those suffering from lactose intolerance. L. rhamnosus’ ability to break down lactose benefits those intolerant of dairy.
- Acid Production: L. rhamnosus bacteria serve to produce lactic acid as an end product of its fermentation, providing acidifying benefits and maintaining an acidic environment in the gut that inhibits pathogen growth.
- Fermentation: L. reuteri is another laboratory microorganism with fermentative capabilities similar to L. rhamnosus. Through glycolysis, this strain of L. reuteri can metabolize numerous carbs including glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose for fuel source; with lactic acid produced as its primary fermentation product.
- Heterofermentative Metabolism: L. reuteri is known for its unique metabolic pathway called the “reuterin pathway.” It can convert glycerol into a compound called reuterin, which exhibits antimicrobial properties. This ability sets L. reuteri apart from many other LAB species.
- Acid Production: Similar to L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri produces lactic acid during fermentation, contributing to its acidifying capabilities.
Noting the metabolic capabilities of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri may depend upon strain or subspecies differences is vital, since different strains possess specific enzymes or metabolic pathways to use specific substrates or produce additional metabolites – these variations could dramatically impact functional properties or potential health benefits of either strain.
Strain Variability and Subspecies of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus Reuteri
Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri both exhibit strain variability that is further divided into subspecies, making understanding these variations vital as each strain may possess unique genetic markers, metabolic capabilities and health advantages that vary considerably among them.
Here’s an overview of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri:
Lactobacillus rhamnosus: Lactobacillus rhamnosus comprises various strains, and some commonly studied subspecies include:
- Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (also known as LGG): Probiotic strain L. casei has become one of the best-studied probiotic strains. Studies on its potential benefits to gut health, immune modulation and the prevention of gastrointestinal disorders.
- Other subspecies/strains: Subspecies and strains of L. rhamnosus such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and HN001 that have been researched extensively have also been explored for their distinct properties and potential health advantages.
Lactobacillus reuteri: Lactobacillus reuteri also encompasses different strains and subspecies, including:
- Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 (formerly Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938): This strain has been extensively researched for its ability to produce reuterin, an antimicrobial compound. Reuterin may offer potential advantages in terms of digestive health, immune modulation and oral wellbeing.
- Other subspecies/strains: There are additional subspecies and strains of L. reuteri, such as Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 and Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, which have been studied for their specific characteristics and potential health effects.
Note that various strains and subspecies within Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri may differ significantly in terms of genomic makeup, metabolic capabilities and functional properties, which could significantly influence survival, colonization and interactions within human bodies as well as potential health benefits – it’s therefore imperative when studying or researching effects associated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri to take this into account.
Health Benefits of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus Reuteri
Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri have both been associated with numerous health benefits. While their effectiveness varies based on strain or subspecies.
Here are some potential health advantages associated with probiotic bacteria:
- Gut Health: L. rhamnosus has long been studied for its beneficial effects on gut health. It can help restore balance to gut microbiota levels, aid digestion and regularize bowel regularity; furthermore it has shown promise as an aid against symptoms associated with IBS like bloating, gas and abdominal discomfort.
- Immune Modulation: Studies suggest that L. rhamnosus can modulate the immune system, encouraging an optimal and balanced response from immune cells. Furthermore, this supplement could potentially enhance activity of immune cells while stimulating production of immune-modulating substances to maintain homeostasis of immune systems.
- Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea: L. rhamnosus has been studied for its ability to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), a common side effect of antibiotic use. By restoring the gut microbiota disrupted by antibiotics, it can help maintain a healthy gut environment and reduce the risk of diarrhea.
- Allergy Prevention: L. rhamnosus has been investigated for its potential in preventing and managing allergies, particularly in children. Some studies suggest that early-life supplementation with L. rhamnosus may reduce the risk of developing allergic conditions such as eczema and allergic rhinitis.
- Gut Health and Digestion: L. reuteri has long been linked with improved gut health and digestion, helping regulate bowel movements, reduce constipation and relieve symptoms associated with various digestive conditions, such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) or Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).
- Oral Health: Certain strains of L. reuteri have shown promising results for improving oral health. By inhibiting harmful bacteria’s presence in the mouth and decreasing risk factors such as dental caries, gum disease and bad breath they could help promote oral wellness and strengthen dental protection.
- Immune Support: L. reuteri has been studied for its immunomodulatory effects. It may help regulate the immune system, enhance immune responses, and reduce the risk of respiratory infections and allergies.
- Women’s Health: Certain strains of L. reuteri, such as Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14, have been researched for their potential benefits in women’s health. They may help maintain a healthy vaginal microbiota, prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs), and support overall urogenital health.
Note that while these health benefits have been observed in some studies, further investigation must take place in order to understand their mechanism and specific effects of different strains and subspecies of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri. Furthermore, individual reactions to probiotics may differ widely and consultation with healthcare professionals for tailored advice is highly advised for optimal guidance and support.
Prevalence and Sources of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus Reuteri
Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri can both be found in various environments and biological sources, making these species widely distributed throughout nature and culture.
Here’s an overview of their prevalence and sources:
- Human Gut: L. rhamnosus is a natural inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the gut microbiota of many individuals, although its abundance and prevalence may vary among individuals.
- Dairy Products: L. rhamnosus is often used as a starter culture in the production of fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, cheese, and kefir. It is intentionally added during the fermentation process to confer probiotic properties to the final product.
- Probiotic Supplements: L. rhamnosus is one of the most commonly used probiotic strains in commercial probiotic supplements. It is available in various formulations, including capsules, tablets, and powders, as a convenient way to consume beneficial bacteria.
- Other Environmental Sources: L. rhamnosus can also be found in environmental sources, such as soil, plants, and water. However, its prevalence in these sources may not be as significant as its presence in the human gut and dairy products.
- Human Gut: L. reuteri is a common member of the human gut microbiota. It is found in the gastrointestinal tract of many individuals, although its abundance and prevalence can vary.
- Mammals and Animals: L. reuteri is also found in the gastrointestinal tracts of various mammals and animals, including pigs, poultry, rodents, and even some reptiles. It can be a part of the natural microbiota of these animals.
- Breast Milk: L. reuteri has been detected in breast milk, indicating its potential transmission from mother to infant during breastfeeding. This highlights its role in early gut colonization and development in infants.
- Probiotic Supplements: L. reuteri is commonly included in probiotic formulations and can be found in probiotic supplements targeted for gastrointestinal and urogenital health. It is available in various forms, including capsules, chewable tablets, and drops.
Not to be taken for granted is the prevalence and sources of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri can depend on many different variables, including geography, lifestyle factors and diet; additionally different strains or subspecies within each species could have unique distribution patterns and sources.
Safety and Side Effects of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus Reuteri
Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics are generally considered safe for consumption and have a long track record of use across various applications, though individual responses to probiotics may differ, with rare individuals possibly experiencing side effects or adverse reactions to probiotic consumption.
Here is an overview of potential safety concerns related to L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri:
- Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS): Both L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri have been granted Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status by regulatory authorities, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This designation indicates their safety when used in food and dietary supplement applications.
- Long History of Use: L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri have been consumed by humans for many years through various sources, including fermented foods and traditional practices, without reports of significant safety concerns.
- Well-Tolerated: In most individuals, L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri are well-tolerated and do not cause adverse effects when consumed within recommended doses.
Potential Side Effects:
- Gastrointestinal Disturbances: Some individuals may experience temporary gastrointestinal symptoms when beginning probiotic supplementation for the first time, including bloating, gas, abdominal discomfort or changes in bowel movements. These side effects usually resolve quickly as their bodies adapt to living with probiotics in its environment.
- Allergic Reactions: While rare, allergic reactions to L. rhamnosus or L. reuteri can occur in sensitive individuals. Symptoms may include rash, itching, swelling, or difficulty breathing. If any signs of an allergic reaction occur, immediate medical attention should be sought.
Probiotic supplementation should always follow the recommendations and instructions set by healthcare providers or product manufacturers, especially if any preexisting health issues exist or medications are currently taken by you. Furthermore, prior to commencing probiotic supplementation it would be prudent to speak to a healthcare provider.
Additionally, different strains and formulations of L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri may have differing properties and effects, making it imperative that products come from trustworthy and well-tested sources.
If you experience persistent or severe side effects after taking L. rhamnosus or L. reuteri supplements, it is highly advised that you stop their usage immediately and consult a healthcare provider immediately for evaluation and guidance.
Commercial Products and Market Availability of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus Reuteri
Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri are popular probiotic strains and widely available commercial products containing them.
Here are a few examples of such products and market availability of probiotics such as these:
- Probiotic Supplements: Lactobacillus rhamnosus is one of the more frequently-found probiotic strains used in probiotic formulations, either alone or combined with other beneficial bacteria strains. Probiotic supplements come in various forms like capsules, tablets, powders and even chewable tablets for consumption.
- Yogurt and Fermented Dairy Products: L. rhamnosus is often used as a starter culture in the production of yogurt and other fermented dairy products. Many commercially available yogurts and probiotic drinks contain L. rhamnosus as part of their probiotic blend.
- Functional Foods: L. rhamnosus may also be added to a variety of functional foods, such as granola bars, cereals, juices, and snacks, to provide probiotic benefits. These products may be specifically marketed for their probiotic content.
- Probiotic Supplements: Lactobacillus reuteri can often be found as either an individual strain or combined with other probiotic strains in probiotic supplements, either alone or combined with others. Such supplements come in capsule form, tablets form, drops form and chewable tablets forms for easy consumption.
- Probiotic Infant Formulas: L. reuteri is sometimes included in infant formula products to mimic the natural occurrence of this probiotic in breast milk. These formulas are specifically designed to provide infants with the potential benefits of L. reuteri.
- Oral Health Products: Some oral health products, such as toothpaste, mouthwashes, and lozenges, may contain L. reuteri as a component to promote oral health and prevent dental caries.
- Animal Feed and Agriculture: L. reuteri is also used in animal feed to promote gut health and improve animal performance. Additionally, it may be used in agriculture for applications such as soil health and crop production.
These products can be found at pharmacies, health food stores, supermarkets and online retailers. When selecting these items it’s essential that they come from reliable brands with quality testing processes in place and adhere to safety standards; reading product labels carefully as well as following dosage recommendations is imperative in achieving maximum effectiveness and benefit for optimal use and potential returns.
Here’s a comparison chart highlighting some key similarities and differences between Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri:
|Features||Lactobacillus rhamnosus||Lactobacillus reuteri|
|Taxonomy and Classification||Species within the Lactobacillus genus||Species within the Lactobacillus genus|
|Morphology and Characteristics||Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria||Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria|
|Metabolic Capabilities||Fermentative metabolism, produces lactic acid||Fermentative metabolism, produces lactic acid|
|Strain Variability and Subspecies||Multiple strains and subspecies identified||Multiple strains and subspecies identified|
|Prevalence and Sources||Human gut, dairy products, probiotic supplements||Human gut, mammals, breast milk, probiotic supplements|
|Potential Health Benefits||Gut health, immune modulation, antibiotic-associated diarrhea prevention, allergy prevention||Gut health, oral health, immune support, women’s health|
|Safety and Side Effects||Generally considered safe, rare occurrence of side effects||Generally considered safe, rare occurrence of side effects|
|Commercial Availability||Widely available in probiotic supplements, yogurt, fermented dairy products||Widely available in probiotic supplements, infant formulas, oral health products|
|Acid Tolerance||High acid tolerance, can survive stomach passage||High acid tolerance, can survive stomach passage|
Similarities between Lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus Reuteri
Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri both belong to the Lactobacillus genus and share several similarities.
Here being some key ones between them:
- Probiotic Potential: Both L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri are considered probiotic bacteria, meaning they have the potential to confer health benefits when consumed in adequate amounts. They are commonly used in probiotic formulations and are associated with various positive effects on gut health, immune modulation, and other aspects of well-being.
- Gut Colonizers: Both species are naturally found in the human gastrointestinal tract and can establish themselves as part of the gut microbiota. They contribute to the complex microbial ecosystem in the intestines and interact with the host and other microorganisms present in the gut.
- Acid Tolerance: L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri exhibit high tolerance to acidic conditions, allowing them to survive passage through the stomach and reach the intestines, where they can exert their beneficial effects.
- Safety Profile: Both L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri have been granted Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status by regulatory authorities, indicating their safety for consumption. They have a long history of use in various applications, including food and dietary supplements, without reports of significant safety concerns.
- Commercial Availability: L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri are widely available in commercial products, including probiotic supplements, yogurt, and other fermented foods. They are commonly used in the food and healthcare industries due to their recognized health-promoting potential.
While L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri share these similarities, it’s important to note that they are distinct species with their own unique characteristics, strain variability, and potential health benefits. Understanding the specific properties and effects of each species and its different strains is crucial for targeted research and appropriate use in various applications.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri are two well-known probiotic bacteria that offer potential health benefits. L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri strains and subspecies can vary in their characteristics, metabolic capabilities, and health effects. They are commonly found in the human gut, as well as in dairy products, probiotic supplements, and other sources.
These probiotics have been associated with several health benefits, including supporting gut health, immune modulation, prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, allergy prevention, oral health, and women’s health. However, individual responses may vary, and it’s important to note that specific strains and subspecies may have different effects.